The Basic Objectives of Businesses. Indices of Liquidity and Capital Structure of Businesses. Internal and External Finance of Businesses. Measurement of Firm Performance: profitability, growth, productivity, efficiency. Demand and Supply. Cost Analysis. Market Structure. Risk Analysis of Businesses. Break-Even Analysis. Investment Appraisal: Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Understanding Competitive Strategies. Strategic Alliances, Mergers and Acquisitions, Joint Ventures.